Gastric bypass and cardiovascular risk factors
Eur J Endocrinol. 2010 Nov;163(5):735-45. Epub 2010 Aug 26.
Obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors after weight loss: a clinical trial comparing gastric bypass surgery and intensive lifestyle intervention.
Department of Medicine, Morbid Obesity Centre, Vestfold Hospital Trust, PO Box 2168, 3103 Tønsberg, Norway. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: Weight reduction improves several obesity-related health conditions. We aimed to compare the effect of bariatric surgery and comprehensive lifestyle intervention on type 2 diabetes and obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors.
DESIGN: One-year controlled clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00273104).
METHODS: Morbidly obese subjects (19-66 years, mean (s.d.) body mass index 45.1 kg/m(2) (5.6), 103 women) were treated with either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (n=80) or intensive lifestyle intervention at a rehabilitation centre (n=66). The dropout rate within both groups was 5%.
RESULTS: Among the 76 completers in the surgery group and the 63 completers in the lifestyle group, mean (s.d.) 1-year weight loss was 30% (8) and 8% (9) respectively. Beneficial effects on glucose metabolism, blood pressure, lipids and low-grade inflammation were observed in both groups. Remission rates of type 2 diabetes and hypertension were significantly higher in the surgery group than the lifestyle intervention group; 70 vs 33%, P=0.027, and 49 vs 23%, P=0.016. The improvements in glycaemic control and blood pressure were mediated by weight reduction. The surgery group experienced a significantly greater reduction in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, albuminuria and electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy than the lifestyle group. Gastrointestinal symptoms and symptomatic postprandial hypoglycaemia developed more frequently after gastric bypass surgery than after lifestyle intervention. There were no deaths.
CONCLUSIONS: Type 2 diabetes and obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors were improved after both treatment strategies. However, the improvements were greatest in those patients treated with gastric bypass surgery.